LVA Academic research

Research and Studies on the LVA Technology and products

“To know that we know what we know, and to know that we do not know what we do not know, that is true knowledge…” (Copernicus)

A growing number of academic papers and research are focusing on the LVA technology in the recent years, covering its unique abilities as well as limitations. For the purpose of proper disclosure, we will provide below research that supports the technology as well those with negative findings (those we believe were conducted in good faith), and our comments to the same. Please note that this page is updated regularly.

We encourage researchers from the relevant fields of science to join us in research, and seek ways in which our emotion detection voice analysis technology can further be used to advance human sciences, motivations, and for the benefit of mankind at large.

Please contact us at:

Most recent research published:

The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry

Methylphenidate mediated change in prosody is specific to the performance of a cognitive task in female adult ADHD patients

Prosody production is highly personalized, related to both the emotional and cognitive state of the speaker and to the task being performed. Fundamental frequency (F main) is a central measurable feature of prosody, associated with having an attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD)...

Yuval Blochabc*, Shai Aviramad, Ronnie Neemanad, Yoram Brawae, Uriel Nitzanac, Hagai Maozabc & Aviva Mimouni-Blochacf

To the full article...

Comparisson between polygraph and LVA 6.50 results

"Voice lie detector" Utilization Research for lie detection - Study by South Korean police polygraph unit - 2010

(Translated from Korean) Polygraph test results, as determined by the polygraph examiners of Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency were classified to one of the following: True Reaction (NDI), False Reaction (DI), Inconclusive (INC). Layered Voice Analyzer (LVA) test results data collected statements from the vocal input facility. LVA Analysis was provided without knowing the true and false test results. The conformity of the test results (between LVA and the polygraph) would include the INC classification, matched 33 (82.5%) cases, and showed a mismatch in 7 (17.5%). When excluding the INC, the analysis matched 33 patients (86.8%), and showed inconsistency in five (13.2%).

To the full study...

Foundations and Trends in Accounting – Sidney Winter Lecture Series

Speech Analysis in Financial Markets

A Recent research by William J. Mayew and Mohan Venkatachalam from Fuqua School of Business , Duke University, North Carolina. The purpose of this review (aka - the research conclusion) is to describe and expand upon research that examines nonverbal communication in ?nancial markets…it can be useful in capital markets given the ubiquitous availability of other competing information is novel… we foresee tremendous opportunities for researchers to grow this budding area of research. We believe that a deeper understanding of the relevance and usefulness of the vocal component of nonverbal communication will be a useful starting point for exploration of other aspects of nonverbal communication such as facial expressions and gestures.

To the full article...

Homeland Security Affairs Journal

"Vocal Analysis Software for Security Screening: Validity and Deception Detection Potential"

March, 15, 2012 - Homeland Security Affairs, DHS Centers of Excellence Science and Technology Student Papers

Elkins, Aaron C., Judee Burgoon, and Jay Nunamaker.

"This research examines how reliable and valid commercial vocal analysis software is for predicting emotion and deception in security screening contexts using experimental methods. While research exists that evaluates current vocal analysis software’s built-in classifications, there is gap in our understanding on how it may actually perform in a real high stakes environment..."

"...when the vocal variables were analyzed independent of the software’s interface, the variables documented to measure Stress, Cognitive Effort, and Fear significantly differentiated between truth, deception, stressful, and cognitive dissonance induced speech."

>> To the full article


Duke University - Fuqua school of business

“The Power of Voice: Managerial Affective States and Future Firm Performance"

The Journal of Finance - Volume 67, Issue 1, pages 1–44, February 2012

Jessen L. Hobson (College of Business, Illinois), William J. Mayew and Mohan Venkatachalam, Fuqua School of Business, Duke University

Abstract:We measure managerial affective states during earnings conference calls by analyzing conference call audio files using vocal emotion analysis software. We hypothesize and find that, when managers are scrutinized by analysts during conference calls, positive and negative affects displayed by managers are informative about the firm's financial future. Analysts do not incorporate this information when forecasting near-term earnings. When making stock recommendation changes, however, analysts incorporate positive but not negative affect. This study presents new evidence that managerial vocal cues contain useful information about a firm's fundamentals, incremental to both quantitative earnings information and qualitative “soft” information conveyed by linguistic content.

>> To the study

Article first published online: 17 JAN 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-6261.2011.01705.x

Journal of Accounting Research

“Analyzing Speech to Detect Financial Misreporting”

Journal of Accounting Research (Early view)

Abstract:We examine whether vocal markers of cognitive dissonance are useful for detecting financial misreporting. We use speech samples of CEOs during earnings conference calls, and generate vocal dissonance markers using automated vocal emotion analysis software. We begin by assessing construct validity for the software-generated dissonance markers by correlating them with four dissonance-from-misreporting proxies obtained in a laboratory setting. We find a positive association between these proxies and vocal dissonance markers generated by the software, suggesting the software's dissonance markers have construct validity. Applying the software to CEO speech, we find that vocal dissonance markers are positively associated with the likelihood of irregularity restatements. The diagnostic accuracy levels are 11% better than chance and of similar magnitude to models based solely on financial accounting information. Moreover, the association between vocal dissonance markers and irregularity restatements holds even after controlling for financial accounting and linguistic-based predictors. Our results provide new evidence on the role of vocal cues in detecting financial misreporting.

> >> To the Study

Online ISSN: 1475-679X

Elkins, Aaron C., Ph.D., THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA, 2011, 184 pages; 3473611

"Vocalic markers of deception and cognitive dissonance for automated emotion detection systems"

This dissertation investigates vocal behavior, measured using standard acoustic and commercial vocal analysis software, as it occurs naturally while lying, experiencing cognitive dissonance, or receiving a security interview conducted by an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA).

>> To the Study


Mamata Medical College - Personality assessment based on LVA

“Layered Voice Analysis Based Determination of Personality Traits“


Manchireddy, Brinda; Sadaf, Sumaiyah; Kamalesh, Joseph

Research by Mamata Medical College correlating 16PF personality test with LVA emotional readings.


"Introduction Voice opens a door through which emotions fleetly escape analogous to actions manifesting one's personality traits. Voice analysis is the study of speech sounds for purposes other than linguistic content, such as in speech recognition. Layered voice analysis identifies various types of stress levels, cognitive processes, and emotional reactions that are reflected in different properties of the voice. LVA uses a unique mathematical process to detect different types of patterns and abnormalities in the speech flow and classify them in terms of stress, excitement, confusion and other relevant emotional states. Thus the research question:- 'do the outpouring of emotions through one's voice reflect on their personality traits?' .... 

... Conclusions: A significant correlation was seen between the emotional factors and certain personality traits. Thus the emotions displayed through voice can be used as a tool to determine personality."

>> To the Study
Australasian Medical Journal; Aug2010, Vol. 3 Issue 8, p521

Shinshu University - A robotic communication system

“Robotic KANSEI Communication System Based on Emotional Synchronization”

Hashimoto, Minoru (Shinshu University), Yamano, Misaki (Shinshu University), Usui, Tatsuya (Shinshu University), 2008 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Sept, 22-26, 2008, Acropolis Convention Center, Nice, France.

Research by Shinshu University, Japan, using Nemesysco’s emotion detection technology to improve human-machine communication

>> To the Study


Tsukuba university, Tokyo, Japan

"Detection of Psychological Stress Using Layered Voice Analysis Technology" 

Nemoto Kiotaka, Tachikawa Hirokazu, Tanimukai Satoshi, Takao Tesuya, Sato Hideyuki, Ashizawa Yuko, Endo Go, Tanaka Kouhei, Ishii Ryuseke, Ishii Norie, Hashimoto Kuki, Iguchi Tushihiro, Ota Miho, Ogura Kouzou, Hori Masashi, Asada Takashi - University of Tsukuba

Abstract: In this study, we try to detect psychological stress using Layered Voice Analysis (LVA) Technology. One hundred and six healthy subjects are randomly assigned to a control or a task group. Before the task, STAI, blood pressure and salivary amylase levels were measured and voices were also recorded.

Conclusions: “Voice parameters before each task showed significant correlation with trait anxiety and blood pressures. In addition to that, voice parameters of the task group changed significantly during the anagram task compared to the controls. From these results, LVA might be used to detect psychological stress."


Tsukuba university, Tokyo, Japan

"Reliability and Validity of Layered Voice Analysis technology in the detection of mental stress"

Nemoto K1, Tachikawa H1, Takao T1, Sato H1, Ashizawa Y1, Endo G1, Tanaka K1, Ishii R1, Ishii N1, Hashimoto K1, Iguchi T1, Hada S2, Hori M3 and Asada T3

1Psycholosoft, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Japan; 2Alegria Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; 3Dept. of Psychiatry, Univ. of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

"It is known that speech signal contains features which provide information about a human speaker. Although several technologies to detect stress using human voice are available, reports on the reliability and validity of these technologies are controversial. In this study, we investigated the reliability and validity of the Layered Voice Analysis (LVA) technology. Methods: One-hundred and six healthy subjects participated this study. First, stress was assessed by using Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Blood pressure (BP) was also measured. Then, subjects were randomly assigned to the anagram task group and control group. Before task begins, all of the subjects were asked to answer 10 questions vocally, and they were all recorded. After answering questions, task group underwent anagram task whereas control group just read aloud series of words. After the task, STAI-S and BP were measured again. Answers to each question were analyzed using LVA and 22 parameters were computed. The internal consistency was assessed for each parameter using answers before task. Two-sample t-test was performed to see if parameters change significantly due to anagram task. Results: Of 22 parameters, Cronbach’s alpha of 18 parameters was more than 0.6. Two-sample t-test showed that 10 of 18 parameters along with STAI-S and systolic BP changed significantly during the anagram task. Conclusion: Most of the parameters LVA computed are reliable and the value of these parameters changed significantly under stressful conditions. LVA might be useful in the detection of mental stress."

>> To the poster (English)

>> To the article (Japanese, summary in English)

Research results also published at "Seishin Igaku" (Psychiatry) Magazine, October 2008 - ISSN: 0488-1281, ISBN: 05627

Japan Ergonomics Society - Measuring stress on flight simulators using LVA7 technology - Japan

"Evaluation of mental stress by voice analysis during simulated landing"

J. Hada & Y. Takeuchi
The Japanese Journal of Ergonomics, vol.44, No.3, 2008.

>> To the Study (Japanese)


Internal study - LVA computerized global stress readings as a function of TAS

Igor Salganik, MD. Psychiatry & Albert De Vries, Psychologist, PhD.

LVA Computerized Global Stress Readings as a Function of Task Induced Stress

>> To the Study


UNISA, South Africa - Unraveling the mind of the pedophile

“The sexual arousal factor in pedophiles” Prof Herman Conradie, Department of Criminology, University of South Africa, Codicillus, Volume 48, Issue 1, 2007

Unraveling the mind of the pedophile

>> To the Study

Evaluation of Voice Stress Analysis Technology

By Clifford S. Hopkins, Law Enforcement Analysis Facility Lockheed Martin IT
Roy J. Ratley, Law Enforcement Analysis Facility Lockheed Martin IT
Daniel S. Benincasa, SUNYIT Utica, NY
John J. Grieco, Air Force Research Laboratory Rome, NY

"The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has been tasked by the National Institute of Justice to investigate voice stress analysis (VSA) technology and evaluate its effectiveness for both military and law enforcement applications."

>> To the Study


USA Department Of Justice - Rome Labs research on LVA technology

By US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL)

"A three-year study by Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Information Directorate engineers has concluded that several features of voice stress analysis are effective for detecting when a person is answering questions under stress..."

>> To the Study

Preliminary Results from a Comparative Analysis Conducted in a Criminal Justice Field Setting

By John Joseph Palmatier - Ph.D.

"Subjects scheduled for criminal polygraph examinations conducted by a large Midwest state police agency, for crimes ranging from larceny to murder, gave permission to record their vocal responses to questions asked about the issue at examination..."

>> To the Study


Truth verification tools, with a special study of Truster Pro (LVA technology)

“Forensic Criminology and Psychophysiology: Truth Verification tools, with a special study of Truster Pro” , Drs. Guy van Damme , Crime Research in South Africa (CRISA), Volume 2, Number 2 (April 2001)

The Truster Pro is effective to a high degree, which makes it a useful tool for qualified operators, but which also makes it dangerous for abusive persons.
The Truster Pro is a user friendly, versatile and feasible truth verification instrument.
The accuracy, established during our research, is considered high and more than satisfactory, even excellent (94% to 98%).

>> To the Study

The Truster Pro technology reliability test - Shlomo Bruck

The Truster Pro Technology Reliability Test

Research by Shlomo Bruck, chairman of the Israeli polygraph association and owner of URAN Polygraph Ltd.

>> To the Study